Abstracts and presenters


Title: Multigenerational residential arrangements and poverty in Mexico

Abstract: Residential arrangements have vital welfare, socioeconomic, and subjective implications.  In Mexico, a characteristic feature of family systems and poverty is the prevalence of extended households and the centrality of intergenerational exchanges. A common hypothesis is that the precarious economic context would further reinforce the strength of family ties and, in particular, the role of co-residence between generations as a resource against different risks in the life course, for example, by pooling material resources or facilitating care in childhood and old age. As in the rest of Latin America, coexistence between generations could be seen as a system of protection and increase of resources, in particular for families living in poverty. In this paper we review whether the multi-generational residence between Mexicans has changed over birth cohorts, focusing on children and older adults. Also, we consider whether poverty makes a difference in the propensity to live in this type of arrangement, where three generation co-exists: grandparents, parents, and kids.

To answer these questions, we constructed a pseudo-panel with data from ENIGH 1996-2014 and defined the living arrangements from the identification of the correlation between generations intertwined by kinship. We examine the multigenerational arrangements of children under the age of 18 and adults aged 65 years and over among the Mexican cohorts, while analyzing the change over time (period) and how age affects the type of arrangements. For this purpose, we estimate an Age-Period-Cohort model that allows determining these effects simultaneously from a multilevel model of cross-nesting. This model also makes it possible to consider the effects of poverty,  rural, sex and region of residence. Our results suggest that across all cohorts the probability of belonging to a multigenerational arrangement increased with poverty. Period effects were also significant but small for both age groups.

Author: Landy Sánchez & Ana Ruth Escoto Castillo

Institution: El Colegio de México & UNAM - Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales

Email: ana.escoto@politicas.unam.mx

Country: México

 

 

Title: Family and the Reproduction of Poverty: the Case of Rural Youth in Canada

Abstract: The level of analysis is twofold, national and local, since poverty has both a national and local configuration (Moulaert 1995;  Madanipour, Cars and Allen, 1998).       

Our aim is to examine the conditions for which the situation of a specific disadvantaged population, young people coming from disadvantaged households, could be endangered in terms of poverty and access to employment, services etc. The region studied (La Mitis in the Lower St Laurent region in Eastern Québec) is characterized by a high percentage of poor and socially disadvantaged households. Our presentation is mainly supported by the qualitative, ethnographic part of this research and in particular through in-depth interviews. However, some quantitative data of our representative survey will also be mobilized. We focus on how and through which mechanisms family can have an impact on socially disadvantaged “rural youth” living in a quite affluent country (Québec). This will allow us to better identify the effect, mechanisms and role of the family in the reproduction of poverty, paying less attention to structural elements such as the economy and the labour market deprivation, which are possibly more decisive in rural Québec.       

Our hypothesis is indeed that together with other variables such as the institutional setting (at global, national and local levels) and the local context (area of residence) there is a decisive family effect which plays out through some specific mechanisms. Even if we should acknowledge that these mechanisms are sometimes interconnected and difficult to analyse separately, our objective remains to observe why and how the family has an important role in the reproduction of poverty for young men and women.        

Author: Marco Alberio

E-mail: marco_alberio@uqar.ca

Institution: University of Québec in Rimouski (UQAR)

Country: Canada/Italy

 

 

Title: Poverty patterns during childhood – Characteristics and determinants

Abstract: In Germany – like in most European countries – children and adolescents are still a social group at higher risk of poverty and welfare benefit receipt. However, most official statistics as well as a number of research findings depend on cross-sectional data. Using longitudinal data instead enhances the perspective on poverty trajectories during childhood. As a result, questions of how poverty patterns are characterised and determined arise. Against this background, we examine poverty patterns of children in Germany in a longitudinal perspective as well as their determinants.

We employ the nine waves of the German panel study “Labour Market and Social Security” (PASS), which is an annual household panel survey. In order to gain a more precise picture of low-income households, we distinguish between five different household income situations: “secured income position”, “intermediate income position”, “at risk of poverty”, “receipt of basic social security” and “at risk of poverty and receipt of basic social security”. In order to identify typical poverty patterns, we use sequence analysis in combination with cluster analysis. The results show five differing clusters in terms of changing income situations and the length of poverty. The biggest group of children lives in permanently secured households during their childhood (69 %) whereas a smaller group of children grows up in permanent poverty (12 %). Three other groups experience multiple changes between secured and precarious income situations for short or longer periods (19 % in total). As determinants of poverty cluster affiliation, we identify household and parental characteristics such as living in a single-parent household, three and more siblings under the age of 15, a low educational qualification of the parents or a mother being unemployed or working in part-time.

Author: Sabrina Reiter

E-mail: sabrina.reiter@iab.de

Institution: Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg

Country: Germany

 

 

 

Title: Family Care for Persons with Dementia: the European North–South Divide

Abstract: My presentation aims to present a sociological understanding of the relationship between dementia and social exclusion. Through an ethnographically grounded exploration of two specific dementia care models – a family and community care approach in Spain and a dementia village in Germany, it will reveal how medical knowledge and care practices are bounded differently in two cultural settings. What are the reasons for the north-south divide and how can the countries learn from one another? Such a comparison addresses a particularly pressing matter, as early diagnosis and early intervention are increasingly deemed crucial mechanisms for dementia treatment and care, yet the social and emotional factors are commonly neglected. For this paper I place the concept of the family at the centre of my analysis. As such, this work’s purpose lies in demonstrating the local dynamics and practices by which persons with dementia , their families, and care takers are reciprocally and actively constituted. Besides the benefits and challenges facing family caregivers of people with dementia, concepts of honour and collectivism will present a starting point for the investigation of the different care models and shall serve as the axis of comparison in this study. Beyond these themes, I shall then try to link my work to broader thematic frameworks encompassing reflections on generational diversity and the medicalization of old age.

Author: Tobias Haeusermann

E-mail: th373@cam.ac.uk

Institution: University of Cambridge

Country: Switzerland

 

 

Title: Parental leave for fathers in USA: Global context, benefits, and development

Abstract: Globally, support for fathers to become more involved in and responsible for domestic work to enhance balance between family and employment has become nearly universal. Pressure groups, legislatures, and businesses increasingly have pushed, enacted, or provided employment leave options to promote involved fathering with children, more equality between fathering and mothering, and mother’s rights to full employment. Almost all nations mandate maternity leave to women usually with some pay but fathers have limited options and extended parental leave when available does not usually include pay. Only USA, among advanced capitalistic countries, has not mandate paid leave for either parent of newborns despite widely documented socio-economic and health benefits and growing pressure to enact paid leave. Evidence is mounting from other nations, especially in Sweden and Japan, that fathers taking leave, and for longer periods, increase their involvement with children and share more equally with mothers housework and childcare. Historical, cultural, economic, and geographical factors in USA inhibit development of nationwide paid leave. Social insurance to cover paid parental leave in USA is a highly contested political issue and politics still matter when attempting to re-shape employment-orientated family policies. Universal mandated paid leave is not expected anytime soon but is being seriously promoted and some progress made. Several States had mandated paid parental leave along with a growing number of local governments and large corporations. Unfortunately, access inequalities and barriers that remain result in most USA fathers taking little if any employment leave. Generously paid leave models, like those in Sweden and Japan, are increasingly being demanded by parenting and family NGOs, labor organizations, and some legislators. Enacting of paid employment leave along with shortened work hours, flextime, and autonomy in work hours and workloads for fathers will provide opportunities for greater domestic work and care equality.

Authors: Rudy Ray Seward & Michael Rush

E-mail: seward@unt.edu

Institution: University of North Texas & University College Dublin, Republic of Ireland)

Country: United States

 

 

 

Title: Village Beliefs System on women as Deities and Devotees – a Case Study on Folk Religion in Usilampatti Taluk of Madurai District, Tamil Nadu

Abstract: Social status of Women in India has always been the most discussed study in India since the early 1980s exploring various characteristics. Among one of the highly investigated subject on the Status of Women is Religion, especially in Hinduism. Hinduism is mainly predominated dominated by male. Women have been glorified as goddess, being identified with Prakruti (nature). The other side the concealed contributions that are made by women in religion and in formation of religious identity. This is been reflected in both the main stream and folk stream of Hinduism. Folk Religion is a belief system consisting of ethnic or regional religious customs under the umbrella of religion.  Folk religion in Tamil Nadu includes both Gods and Goddesses. Herein, the deities are mostly Non- Brahmanical and guard the community. The female Goddesses in folk religion are as powerful as their male counterpart. The present paper highlights the concealed contribution of women and also the transformation from a Matriarchical society into a Patriarchical society. The study was conducted in Usilampatti Taluk, Madurai District of Tamil Nadu. Among the Kula deities two popular deities have been presented as case study. They are Karmathur Moonuchammi and Pappavatti.

Author: Rahul Bhadravathi Nagaraja

                                                           E-mail: rahulgowda2691@hotmail.com

Institution: Reva University

Country: India

 

 

Title: Families as holders of their Human Rights. Paradigm shift from Social Assistance to Demand Rights.

Abstract: The starting point is to understand that the poverty is the result of structural Human Rights violations with serious affections to Human Security of the Social Rights group that which are directly linked to quality and dignified life. While, is true that, some progressive visions of Human Rights in Latin America explain that poverty is "the lack of power over the shortcomings that affect us"; the proposal this essay is to start a discussion on the qualification impact of poverty into families  understanding how the poverty as a condition that does not allow provide the minimum and dignified components for decide with freedom, using full public information and transparency and accountability, and autonomy a collective life project. This is one of the serious problems that continues to recreate a system of social assistance for electoral purposes. These assertions propose a debate and a technical difficulty. The discussion about on the individual or collective ownership Human Rights, which it puts on debate sectoral or collective vision (pro person in contrast with collectives, groups, territories, communities with serious affectations to violations of fundamental Human Rights with  precarization of life and social coexistence that would be breaking the social cohesion); on the other hand, the technical difficulty about how or which methodology for document file violations’ of  Social Rights inside of the Family’s intimate spaces. To this end, I will expose some enforcement mechanisms of Human Rights which will be discussed from to the social promotion and documentation for to diversity Mexican families.

Author: Andrea Kenya Sánchez Zepeda

E-mail: practicaterritorial10@gmail.com

Institution: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México UNAM

Country:México

 

 

Title: The Criminal Justice System, Inequality and African American Families

Abstract: Previous studies examined what the root causes of inequality, poverty, and dysfunction in African American families are. In contrast, I offer insight on how the criminal justice system, policy racism, and benign neglect policy approaches impact African American families, household and community structures. The study dissects the inability of federal, state and local governments to address poverty. Through critical analysis, quantitative and qualitative data are employed to show apparent relationships among disenfranchisement, marginalization, and criminal conviction. The study therefore questions whether criminal justice policies serve as a social control instrument designed to maintain white economic and political hegemony. Where African Americans threaten white dominance, harsher criminal justice system laws and statutes exist. Post-Civil Rights African American economic and political advancement has been challenged with an explosive rise of ‘law and order’ policy responses. To justify their existence, these policies must create a criminal class. As an intended outcome—i.e. the creation of a permanent underclass and super-underclass with limited economic opportunity and without any significant chance for upward mobility—was necessary. Given how social policy intersects and influence economic policy with criminal convictions and disenfranchisement, African American men are given a civil death. With minimal ability for self-determination, disparities in many social indexes become an outcome. This reveals a disparate inequality for African Americans when measured against other ethnic groups.

Keywords: Inequality, families, criminal justice system, poverty, race, disenfranchisement, white dominance

Author: Gerald Fosten

E-mail: geraldntn@hotmail.com

Institution: The African Institute

Country: United States

 

 

Títle: La discriminación matrimonial hacia la minoría Buraku

Abstract:  Ley del Fomento de la Eliminación de la Discriminación hacia la Minoria Buraku fue promulgado en diciembre en 2016. La minoría buraku son las personas a las que ”se consideran” descendientes de las castas en el período Tokugawa (1603-1868dentro de la época feudal de Japón. Las personas que viven en los barrios los buraku y las que se dedican a trabajos considerados para los buraku también pueden ser objeto de tal discriminación. En otras palabras se definen a los buraku por su linaje, su lugar de residencia y/o su ocupación. Sin embargo, algunas personas podrían ser consideradas como buraku aun sin reunir estas tres condiciones. El sistema de castas en Japón fue abolido en 1871. Sin embargo, durante proceso de modernización del país la discriminación se ha transformado a nuevas maneras. En la sociedad japonesa de la posguerra se considera que la discriminación hacia los buraku se manifiesta en ocasión del matrimonio y el empleo.

Particularmente la discriminación en el matrimonio está enraizada profundamente y esta realidad ha sido la base para la creación de una nueva legislación. Además ha surgido una nueva manera de discriminación hacia los buraku a través de la internet en la cual se difunden listas con el nombre del lugar de residencia de los buraku y el registro de los miembro del Movimiento de la Liga de Liberación Buraku.

En esta ponencia voy a dar a conocer algunos casos de la discriminación matrimonial hacia la minoría buraku por parte de otras personas en Japón.

He utilizado los datos recabados en las entrevistas a las personas que han tenido la experiencia de sufrir este tipo de discriminación así como los datos emanados de las estadísticas.

Author: Naoko Saito

E-mail: saito@rchr.osaka-cu.ac.jp

Institution: Osaka City University

Country: Japan

 

 

 

 

 

 

Title: Changes in the Meaning of the Elderly Living with Children: An Analysis of Household Income Inequality among the Japanese Elderly

Abstract: High employment rate among the elderly and a high proportion of the elderly living together with their children have characterized Japan’s aging society since the mid 1970s. Although the proportion of the latter has being declining, two opposite trends are currently evident: among persons aged 65 years and over, the proportion of living with child’s couple is declining, and that of living with unmarried children is rising. Based on SSM (Social Stratification and Mobility) survey data, this paper clarifies the trends of household income inequality among the elderly, using Gini coefficients and income distributions in 1985, 1995, and 2005. It is shown that household income inequality is rising in 2005. The analysis also finds that there are three types of the not-working elderly men living with children in 2005. The first type is the low-income elderly receiving economic support by living with children. The second one is the elderly supported by their own pension who live with low-income children. The third one is the affluent elderly supported by their own pension who live with better-income children. The second type is not identified in the 1995 data. Economic uncertainties facing young people in the 2000s change the meaning of the elderly living together with their children.  It is discussed that the intergenerational mutual dependence through living together is important for low-income household as a way of life that enables them to withstand uncertain conditions. In addition, this paper will report the results of analyzing JGSS 2012 and 2015 data, examining whether the trend continues in the 2010s.

Author: Hachiro Iwai

E-mail: iwai.hachiro.2r@kyoto-u.ac.jp

Institution: Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University

Country: Japan

 

 

Title: Social differentiation strategies and accumulated advantages of low and middle class families in Lima-Perú

 

Abstract: In the last decades, Lima has experienced three important processes of change: an urban consolidation of city non-central areas; an economic growth cycle thus the expansion of the middle class, and the reconfiguration of the symbolic universes on hierarchy and differentiation displayed by the city residents. Based on an extensive qualitative fieldwork, in this paper I try to highlight similarities and differences in the strategies and mechanisms that resident families on Lima Norte adopt in regard of the accumulation of social advantages and differentiation processes. Considering the family as the unit of analysis and the basic unit for social reproduction, I argue on how middle and low-class families that reside in Los Olivos district are different about two aspects: their social network's features and their ways of appropriation of urban space. We address how families -both parents and descendants, promote specific socialization logics and social interactions that they hope will result in the "social improvement" of the family members and the access to better opportunities, as of cutting the transference of social ties from parents to children and the dissociation of children from certain urban spaces of socialization.

Author: Manuel Dammert Guardia

E-mail: manueldammert@gmail.com

Institution: Graduate Student  COLMEX / Research Affiliate CISEPA PUCP

Country: Perú/México

 

 

 

Title: Early Parenthood and Inequalities in Family and Work Trajectories. Experiences of women and men in urban Mexico

Abstract: Early ages at birth of first child are associated to economic and social dis-advantages. Maternity at early ages is related to low education and participation in the labor market. When young mothers work, they have more precarious jobs and lower incomes than older mothers. Early timing of fertility can act as a trigger of accumulation of disadvantages in later stages of life. At the same time, having an early birth might be a consequence of poverty because of previous disadvantages young women face before becoming pregnant.

The objective of this chapter is to analyze the interwoven family and work trajectories of individuals in urban Mexico, and determine if early transitions to parenthood are associated to adverse consequences in later stages of life of women and men of three social strata and two birth cohorts. The research focuses on finding out if early parenthood affects all social strata or if previous socioeconomic inequalities are exacerbated by an early parenthood, and early parents of low socio-economic strata end up having lower education, more discontinuous work trajectories in low occupations and more unstable marriage life paths than those who postponed their fertility. As strong differences in gender roles persist in the Mexican society, we expect the consequences of an early parenthood not to be the same for women and men in the family and work domains. The analysis of two birth cohorts allows us to observe the change over time.

A Multichannel Sequence Analysis is applied in order to simultaneously study the trajectories in the family and work domains. The data source is the Retrospective Demographic Survey (Eder), carried out in urban areas of Mexico in 2011. We use annual data on school, work, and marital life histories from ages 12 to 41 of 888 women and 851 men of two birth cohorts born in 1951-1953 and 1966-1969.

Authors: Marta Mier-y-Terán * & Ana Karina Videgain **

E-mail: martamyt@sociales.unam.mx

Institution: *Institute of Social Research, UNAM & **Metropolitan Autonomous University

Country: México

 

 

Title: Power relations between husband and wife in Vietnamese families: Findings from a study in Northern Central Region, Vietnam

The power balance between husband and wife in the family which is usually measured by the primary decision maker of family matters is amongst the important aspects of gender equality in the family. This paper analyses the data surveyed in two provinces in the Northern Central region, Vietnam in 2013 and presents the characteristics of the power balance of husband and wife in the family. Multivariate analysis has been applied to identify effects of socio-economic factors on decision making. The results show that the decision making power of husband and wife in the surveyed families is of traditional pattern that the husband is the primary decision maker of important matters including buying land/houses, expensive furniture, children's occupation, and family production and business. The housework and care work is primarily decided by the wife. Depending on each family matter, the individual socio-economic characteristics of the husband and wife are likely to increase or decrease the power of husband or wife over family matters. For example, in the area of family production or business, the wife is the primary decision maker if her husband is unemployed. The higher income of the husband, the less likely he does primarily housework or care work. The higher income of the wife, the more likely she does primarily household and care work. The differential of income influences considerably the decision making power of husband and wife. The spouse who has better income is more powerful over economic activities.

Author: Huu Minh Nguyen

E-mail: minhngaanh@yahoo.com

Institution: Institute for Family and Gender Studies

Country: Vietnam

 

 

 

Title: Fathering in Raced and Gendered Bodies in the New Latino South: Undocumented Mexican Fathers Parenting Beyond Borders, Fuera de Aztlán

Abstract: I report on the narratives of four Mexican undocumented fathers living in the New Latino South in the US and who parent at a distance of time and space from their children who remain in México. This qualitative study employs person-centered ethnography and examines the layers of inequality that the fathers and their families experience, as fathers navigate retrogressive racist policies in the southeastern US as hypervisible raced and gendered subjects, while their families experience only modest gains in living standards. Three pivotal events undermined the father’s economic viability: the rejection of immigrant agency that was demonstrated during the nationwide immigrant marches for amnesty of 2006, the Great Recession of 2008, and the 2009 implementation of Section 287g of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA); 287g allows for memorandum of agreement (MOA) between Immigration, Customs and Enforcement (ICE) and local sheriff’s department to be established for the purpose of authorizing sheriffs to act as de facto ICE agents in the detection, detention and deportation of undocumented individuals. This program effectively moved the México-US border from its geographical location to the brown laboring body wherever that body might be located—deep in the interior of the country, on the jobsite, or in a car—thus putting the fathers in this study, and other undocumented residents, at constant risk of deportation through racial profiling at checkpoints and worksite raids. The fathers in this study immediately recognized their vulnerability and by default, that of their families, under these conditions, conditions that contribute to various degrees of oppression, exclusion and inequality lived by Mexican families, and which are inscribed with the power dynamics of the region and US dominance over México.

Author: Marta Sánchez

E-mail: sanchezm@uncw.edu

Institution: University of North Carolina Wilmington

Country: USA

 

 

 

 

Title: "Extraño a mi mamá... but this is what's best for me": Child migrants circulating between Mexico and the United States.

Abstract: Over four years, we have followed a group of ten child migrants and their families who arrived in the state of Morelos, Mexico since 2011.  We have done so through an ongoing, child-centered, longitudinal and multi-site study between Mexico and the United States; this is the first project of its kind.   With it, we wanted to meet the following objectives: first, to complement the previous studies carried in other Mexican states with transnational students; second, to document and classify the migratory and school trajectories of transnational children in Morelos; and third, to document, classify, describe and analyze the type of strategies that transnational children build and display when integrating or reintegrating to Mexican communities, homes and schools. Nonetheless, we observed that some of these children were not staying in Mexico with their parents, we identified and documented a new trajectory: child returnees to the United States.  These are children who were born and raised in the United States, who lived in Mexico for a period of time, and are now back in American communities and schools (Román González, Carrillo Cantú and Hernández-León, 2016). The purpose of this project, therefore, is to understand how children continue to construct and reconstruct the concepts of migration, family, home, schooling and their futures, depending on the place they are at, the resources they find, the opportunities or obstacles they encounter, and the use of abilities that they learn through their experience of moving back and forth between two countries.  Therefore, we think it is very important to learn about child migration from “within”, from the child’s perspective, and not “without”, “for”, or “about” children (Yarwood and Tyrrell, 2012). 

Author: Betsabé Román

E-mail: brg384.br@gmail.com

Institution: University of California, San Diego

Country: Mexico/United States

 

 

Title: Migration and health in the communities of origin of migrants of the South of Nuevo León, Mexico. Comparative study of the illness management.

Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of migration in the country of origin by focusing on illness management.  Overall, it explains how families in the community of origin are structured, how their livelihoods and internal organization are modified, and the transformations they undergo when facing barriers within the Mexican health system. Thus, the research contributes to the recent effort to understand the importance of the point of departure in the analysis of the migration process , particularly in relation to health provision policies. The case studies are presented in the context of Mexico – US migration, using ethnographic methods to analyze the impact of migration on the social dynamics of illness, emphasizing comparisons between migrant and non-migrant families in a rural area from the Northern state of Nuevo León. Results show the importance of family for channeling different assets (economic, human and social) and as a basic organizational unit for administering health as a caregiver, negotiator and intermediary, vis a vis health agencies. Finally, it argues that migrants and their relationship with the community of origin (family and institutions) will help to understand the social context that may perpetuate migration.

Author: Iza María Sánchez-Siller

E-mail: izasiller@gmail.com

Institution: Tecnológico de Monterrey / Facultad Libre de Derecho de Monterrey

Country: México

 

 

Title: Analyzing the Deportation of the Immigrant Family Members as a Family Separation Issue

Abstract: While immigration is accepted as a significant and spreading issue, the increasing number of migrant families formed of the U.S.A born-citizen children with legal permanent resident families or undocumented parents became not an extraordinary situation. Accordingly, the related immigration cases and court decisions mainly emerged in addition to the attention of the media regarding immigrant families. The said attention is particularly caused by the impact of the globalism occasioned to grand amendments. In this sense, migrant families face with unequal implementations concerning family issues like deportation. Considering that children are insomuch in the need of protection and special care and child is an inseparable part of the family, this research shall focus on the family separation and deportation.

Initially, it shall describe the definitions of family, child and the family separation in the term of the UNCRC and various Human Rights Convention. Because being in a family unity shows us the principle of  the best interest of child, the mere issue in international law regarding the child’s rights shall be considered as the protection of children. However one of the problems of the implementation of the present principle is how and on what grounds to figure out the best interests of children in the application of the family separation. Because along with the prominence of the child’s present interests, the opportunities provided to the child in future are also vital since it may influence the education and the health of the child.

Consequently, court decisions shall be browsed in order to comprehend the approach of the U.S.A. Courts.  In this regard, this research shall look for causations whether or not the authorities consider the best interest of children in the case of deportations.

Keywords: Child, Deportation, Immigration

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Author: Azer Sumbas

E-mail: azersumbas@hacettepe.edu.tr

Institution: Hacettepe University, Faculty of Law

Country: Turkey

 

 

Title: Growing up in a mixed status family: Effects of family immigration status on child wellbeing

Abstract: With recent escalation in government efforts to aggressively enforce US immigration laws through deportation, there has been increased concern over the impact of such policies on individuals, and particularly children, in mixed status families, or families that include citizen and non-citizen members. While much of the research on mixed status families has been qualitative, or focused on a specific community, this paper uses a nationally representative data set for the U.S. -- the 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation -- to examine the association between family immigration status and reported hardship and well-being among children under 18 years. In this analysis, families are characterized families into four mutually-exclusive groups: (1) Families comprised of all U.S. citizen members; (2) Families consisting of citizen and legal permanent resident members; (3) Mixed status families including US citizens and/or LPR members as well as non-LPR non-citizen members; and (4) Families comprised only of non-citizen members without permanent resident status. Results suggest that children of Mexican and Central American descent are more likely than children from other race/ethnic groups to experience living in mixed families and are therefore most vulnerable to vagaries of immigration policy. Further, results reveal few differences in characteristics of children in mixed-status families and those in families including legal permanent residents and citizens. Yet, preliminary estimates from pooled linear probability models and residual change models suggest that children residing in mixed status families experience significantly higher levels of hardship, more food insecurity, poorer health, more household crowding and live in families receiving less assistance from social networks.  These results remain robust after controlling for a host of individual, family and household characteristics.  Further, these findings have important implications as the uncertainty, hardship and stress associated with growing up in a mixed status family may affect later development and outcomes.

Author: Laryssa Mykyta

E-mail: laryssa.mykyta@utrgv.edu

Institution: University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Country: United States

 

 

Title: Three Decades of Educational Differentials in Attitudes toward Divorce in Taiwan, 1985-2015

Abstract: Scholars often assume that divorce attitudes align with divorce behavior. However, in societies with rapid increase of educational expansion and divorce, whether changes in attitudes toward divorce reflect changes in divorce behavior is unclear. This paper examines how attitudes toward divorce have changed over the last three decades from 1985 to 2015 in Taiwan and focuses on the impact of education. Our results show that the Taiwanese hold increasingly open attitudes toward divorce across all education levels. Furthermore, the higher educated are more open to divorce than the less educated and the educational gap in divorce attitudes increased over time. This pattern of educational differential in divorce attitudes and divergence over time is paradoxical to studies that show divorce being concentrated among the low educated in Taiwan (“educational crossover”). We discuss this discrepancy between trends in divorce attitude and divorce behavior in the context of rapid social changes in Taiwan.

Author: Yi-Lin Chiang

E-mail: yilinc@sas.upenn.edu

Institution: University of Pennsylvania

Country: Taiwan/United States

 

 

Title: The long arm of the family. On the reconsideration of educational decisions and the role of parental preferences.

Abstract: The intergenerational transmission of educational advantage within families is one of the core mechanisms contributing to the reproduction of a society’s inequality structures. Parental educational background has repeatedly been demonstrated to be an important predictor of their offspring’s educational success and this influence has been shown to be particularly important early on in the children’s educational careers.

Exploiting a rich panel data set of school leavers with a university entrance qualification from Germany (the DZHW-Studienberechtigtenpanel) we investigate the determinants of reconsidering one`s educational intentions after leaving school. In addition, we look into the role of parental preferences on children`s decisions at this rather advanced stage of their educational career.

Applying a life course perspective and rational choice as well as social norms theory, we analyse the mechanisms explaining the changes between original intention and actual educational decision. We can show that the change of one’s original decision is – like other educational decisions – dependent on social background and that young people from privileged families are not only more likely to take up academic studies in the first place but, moreover, have a higher probability to later on correct an original decision against academic education.

Beyond that we can demonstrate parental preferences for academic education to play a substantive role in this process of reconsideration. In fact, when parental preferences are controlled for, no significant effect of social background can be identified. So it appears that parental wishes play a substantial role in their offspring’s decision making - even at such a rather late point in their educational biographies - and thus contribute to the family’s role in the reproduction of social inequality.

Author: Bernhard Christoph (IAB), Heiko Quast (DZHW) & Heike Spangenberg (DZHW)

E-mail: bernhard.christoph@iab.de

Institution: Institute for Employment Research (IAB)

Country: Germany

 

 

Title: Changes in Attitudes toward Gender Roles and the Rigidness of the Japanese Social System : An Analysis of Family Module in JGSS-2006 and JGSS-2016

Abstract: According to the Global Gender Gap Report, Japan was ranked 80 in 2006 and 111 in 2016 (score in 2016 is .660). Its rank in economic participation and opportunity dropped from 83 to 118 (.569), dropped from 83 to 103 (.103) in political empowerment, dropped from 60 to 76 (.990) in educational attainment and dropped from 1 to 40 in health and survival (.979).

During the same decade, both men and women have gradually changed their attitudes toward gender roles, authority of fathers, cohabitation, marriage, divorce, preference for a boy to continue the family line, priority in husband’s relatives above wife’s relatives,  and priority in husband’s career above wife’s career.

The present study will analyze changes in people’s gender role attitudes based on the Japanese General Social Survey 2006 and 2016 data sets. These surveys include the East Asian Social Survey Family Module 2006 and 2016 whose data have not been integrated yet. The study will also discuss the rigidness of the Japanese Social System.

Author: Noriko Iwai

E-mail: n-iwai@tcn.zaq.ne.jp

Institution: JGSS Research Center, Osaka University of Commerce

Country: Japan

 

 

 

Title: Nature And Prevalence Of Domestic Violence Against Men In Dala Local Government Area Of Kano State, Nigeria

Abstract: Domestic violence is a pattern of abusive behaviors by one or both partners in an intimate relationship such as marriage, dating, family, friends or cohabitation. Domestic violence has largely focused on women as victims and men as perpetrators. Domestic violence against men tend to go unrecognized since men are less likely to admit to or report such incidence because of embarrassment and fear of ridicule. The present study examines the nature and prevalence of domestic violence perpetrated against men by women in Dala Local Government Area of Kano State, Nigeria, through specifically identifying the forms of abuse experienced and examining their responses to the abuse perpetrated by women at home. A total of 120 male victims of domestic violence were sampled using multi-staged, purposive and snowball sampling techniques. The data were collected using questionnaire and in-depth interviews; and were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social sciences and content analysis. The findings of the study revealed that domestic violence against men manifests in various forms, namely verbal, physical, psychological, sexual, emotional and economic abuse. The results indicate that men of ages between 25 and 34 years are physically abused more than any other age group. The study recommends greater advocacy to enlighten the public about the existence and reality of the evil of domestic violence and effective legislation to curb domestic violence against men.

Keywords: Domestic violence, male victim, intimate partners, women as perpetrators.

Author: Mohammed Mustapha Namadi

E-mail: mmnamadi2@gmail.com

Institution: Federal University Kashere, Gombe State

Country: Nigeria

 

 

Title: Diferencias en las necesidades que genera el estatus de estudiantes universitarios entre jóvenes que comparten origen étnico y trayectorias académicas.

Abstract: En los últimos años, se han evidenciado ampliamente las desigualdades sociales de la población indígena, que abonan a la acumulación de desventajas que, generalmente, mantienen durante sus cursos de vida. Quienes tienen posibilidad de superar algunas desventajas y aproximarse a los que pueden ser caminos para reducir ciertas desigualdades son los jóvenes en edad universitaria que ingresan a una universidad pública. A nivel nacional, la mayoría de los jóvenes de origen indígena no lo intenta. En el estado de Hidalgo, México, una cantidad significativa de estudiantes de origen otomí o hñahñú lo intenta e ingresan a una universidad, ubicada en el Suroeste de Hidalgo, México. Su origen y trayectorias académicas han abonado sus aspiraciones de profesionalización y la forma en la que han mantenido sus transiciones educativas, a través de múltiples micro apoyos y actuaciones que los refuerzan. Estas situaciones son las articulaciones entre sus necesidades económicas y materiales, en tanto estudiantes, y los medios para satisfacerlas de forma eventual y emergente. Dichas necesidades han puesto en relieve significativas diferencias y la forma en la que influyen en su posición social en la Universidad. Estas diferencias, develadas por el momento universitario, se habían mantenido en segundo plano dadas las semejanzas de los cursos de vida de los jóvenes y los de sus familias en sus comunidades de procedencia. En esta reflexión, se busca evidenciar las diferencias que pueden generar desventajas entre estudiantes con origen, familias y trayectorias de vida compartidas. El presente trabajo es parte de una investigación cualitativa que, a través de observación en el aula y entrevistas a profundidad, y utilizando algunas herramientas del enfoque de curso de vida, busca revisar las transiciones educativas de jóvenes originarios del Valle del Mezquital y los factores que fueron determinantes en su ingreso al nivel superior como una transición de gran escala.

Author: Ma. de los Ángeles Gómez Gallegos

E-mail: mariangg9@hotmail.com 

Institution: El Colegio de México

Country: México

 

 

Title: Educación superior y familia. Visión de los estudiantes.

Abstract: A pesar de los esfuerzos que se han realizado a nivel mundial para brindar educación a todos (de calidad, equitativa, inclusiva y para toda la vida; cfr. UNESCO, 2014; OEI, 2010), se sigue observando una distribución desigual en el acceso, y la de tipo superior sigue siendo privilegio de pocos (en México la cobertura está alrededor de 40%, con grandes diferencias por región), quienes además se enfrentan a múltiples problemáticas educativas (deserción, reprobación, inserción laboral) y sociales (adicciones, violencia). La familia representa un punto de apoyo primordial para los individuos, de manera especial para su actuación en el ámbito educativo (Rodríguez, 2014); así, pareciera que el sustento socioafectivo brindado por los miembros de la familia (en cualquier estructura o conformación; cfr. Ulrich & Beck-Gernsheim, 2003) es muy significativo para los estudiantes (Romo, 2009), lo que les permitiría (o al menos favorecería) llevar a buen término su formación profesional. Pero ¿de qué manera se involucran las familias en los procesos formativos de los jóvenes universitarios?, ¿cómo contribuyen a su desempeño académico?

Author: José Matías Romo Martínez

E-mail: matias.romo@yahoo.com.mx

Institution: Universidad Autónoma de Aguascalientes

Country: México

 

 

Title: Estudiantes indígenas Universitarios: experiencias de apropiación y usos de tecnologías digitales

Abstract: El objetivo de este capítulo es reflexionar acerca de las experiencias y trayectorias de estudiantes indígenas Universitarios, provenientes de distintas comunidades étnicas de México, en relación a la apropiación, uso e implicación de las tecnologías digitales. Se abordarán las diversas experiencias de los estudiantes indígenas adscritos a un programa de becas del Instituto Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores de Occidente (ITESO), dirigido a estudiantes indígenas y de zonas rurales/ populares que favorecen la interculturalidad en la comunidad Universitaria.

El propósito es mostrar las transformaciones en las últimas décadas en cuanto al acceso a la Educación Superior para la población indígena, distintos tipos de apropiación tecnológica digital según los contextos urbanos o rurales de los estudiantes, y la tecnología como una herramienta cada vez más incorporada y utilizada para generar capital social y capital simbólico, para liberar, resistir, defender los derechos humanos y re-crear la práctica de la lengua materna. Igualmente, se ahondará sobre el sistema hegemónico que favorece el rezago educativo, la acumulación y marginación que los pueblos originarios han vivido históricamente, la exclusión-inclusión del proyecto nacional hacia esta población. La estrategia metodológica que se utilizará es la del grupo focal y algunas entrevistas semi-estructuradas.

 Palabras clave: estudiantes indígenas, etnia, tecnologías digitales, redes sociales.

Author: Ana Georgina  López Zepeda

E-mail: anageo@iteso.mx

Institution: ITESO

Country: México

 

 

Title: Estructuras familiares y desigualdades en México

Abstract: ¿Por qué es importante la estructura de los arreglos residenciales familiares? Con esta pregunta podemos iniciar la reflexión sobre la relación entre los patrones de convivencia y las desigualdades socioeconómicas. Quien vive con quien, depende tanto de decisiones que toman los individuos para llevar a cabo su vida cotidiana, y de las coyunturas que deben enfrentar, así como de los procesos sociodemográficos y económicos del periodo que les toca vivir.

En las pasadas décadas, la población mexicana experimentó un acelerado descenso en la fecundidad, cambios en la nupcialidad, ganancias sustantivas en la esperanza de vida, intensos movimientos migratorios que llevaron a una rápida urbanización, además de avances en la escolaridad y en la inserción de las mujeres al mercado laboral. Estos procesos tuvieron, y seguirán teniendo, repercusiones en las estructuras de los arreglos residenciales, repercusiones que pueden verse reflejadas en los cambios en el peso relativo de los diferentes arreglos. Por ejemplo, entre 1970 y 2010 aumentaron mucho los arreglos unipersonales (5% a 10%) y disminuyeron los nucleares (59% a 46%). Los arreglos extensos también aumentaron, aunque en menor medida (19% a 25%).

En esta ponencia presentaremos una descripción analítica de las distintas estructuras residenciales familiares. En investigaciones anteriores a 2010, las clasificaciones de las estructuras residenciales familiares eran esquemáticas: arreglos n+J65ucleares, monoparentales y extensos. Nosotras haremos una clasificación más detallada para poder visibilizar arreglos nuevos y precisar la composición de otros, en especial los llamados “extensos” que pueden incluir más de un núcleo de reproducción.

Someteremos a prueba hipótesis que sostienen que las diferencias en las estructuras residenciales familiares están asociadas a desigualdades socioeconómicas (por ejemplo, las familias monoparentales encabezadas por mujeres son más pobres). Debido a que las desigualdades socioeconómicas constituyen un fenómeno multifactorial, veremos también la influencia que puede ejercer la pertenencia étnica, el clima educativo del arreglo residencial y tamaño de la localidad entre otros.

La fuente de datos será la Encuesta Intercensal 2015 cuya muestra es representativa a nivel nacional, estatal y municipal, que contiene información de 6.1 millones de viviendas.

Authors: Cecilia Rabell & Sandra Murillo

E-mail: crabell09@gmail.com

Institution: Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, UNAM.

Country: México

 

 

Title: Parental Legal Vulnerability and its Effects on Child Academic Achievement

Abstract: Relatively few studies have qualitatively explored the experiences of Latino immigrants in the American South to document how parental legal vulnerability can impact child academic achievement.  The study employs a purposive ethnographic approach through semi-structured interviews focused on cumulative experiences of children going through the K-12 educational system. Written from an insider’s perspective into the hard-to-reach population of mixed-status families, three families were interviewed totaling 12 participants living in Northwest Arkansas. Using a cross-case analysis and grounded theory methods presented in three-case studies, three major themes emerged. These themes included (a) legal vulnerability itself affects general well-being more than academic achievement; (b) parental educational experiences influence their involvement in their child’s education more than their legal status; and (c) language ability and norms is a key factor that affects parental involvement

Author: Juan José Bustamante & Nezly Silva

E-mail: jjbustam@uark.edu

Institution: University of Arkansas

Country: United States

 

 

Title: Barriers and Drivers of Upward Intergenerational Mobility on Mexican Women

Abstract: This paper addresses the subject of social mobility in Mexico. Moreover, by using data from the Life Stories of Social Mobility Project (HIMOVI) 2011, the paper establishes the main objective of identifying some of the barriers to socioeconomic mobility for women. By using a biographical approach interviewing to 24 women in Mexico City, Monterrey, and Puebla, we identify 3 main barriers to upward mobility, namely a) an authoritarian fatherhood style, b) family pressures to early marriage, c) domestic violence, happening not just in the house of origin, but also after getting marriage. We also identify drivers to mobility, including i) a reflexive assortative mating, ii) access to institutional resources, mainly universities, iii) the presence of encouraging mothers, frequently as a result of their own lack of access to institutional and social resources, iv) social networks. It is discussed that those findings are not easily obtained from standardized surveys, which are becoming abundant in the recent times. Also traditional approaches to gender inequality have neglected an intergenerational approach.

Author: Juan Enrique Huerta-Wong

E-mail: manueldammert@gmail.com

Institution: UPAEP / CEEY

Country: Perú/México

 

 

Title: Intergenerational Persistence of Skills and Socioeconomic Status

Abstract: This paper describes how the socioeconomic status of parents relates to the formation and development of their adolescent children's skills and preferences, which have proven to be key to understanding differences in life outcomes. It uses data from a novel survey, conducted in Mexico, that records cognitive and non-cognitive skills and social preferences of both parents and children. It first analyzes the relationship between the socioeconomic status of parents and their children's skills. It finds that children's skills are consistently related to parental skills, and that intergenerational persistence of skills is higher for cognitive than for non-cognitive skills or social preferences. It also finds that the cognitive skills gap between the first and fifth quintile in the socioeconomic status distribution is related mainly to characteristics like parents' own skills, years of schooling, and aspirations for their children. These parental characteristics are less important in explaining non-cognitive skills and preferences.

Author: Raymundo M. Campos-Vazquez

E-mail: rmcampos@colmex.mx

Institution: El Colegio de México

Country: Mexico

 

 

Title: Family as an interlocutional space: re-enculturation and intergenerational communication in the context of urban marginality

Abstract: In this paper we present a case study of families, some of whose members, usually of Mayan origin, have migrated to the city from rural areas and whose children were born in a marginalized urban zone, in Southeastern Mexico. We view the families as interlocucional spaces where the basic concepts that support the family life, such as gender roles, as well as the survival strategies are being disputed. This intergenerational interlocution takes place in the context of re-enculturation, that leads to changes in cultural models of thinking and conduct.

                The techniques used to generate the information include life stories of young men and women (members of the younger generation), personal network analysis, and interviews to the parents. The results obtained reveal: 1)                The pivotal role that the family plays in the life of young men and women (members of the younger generation) and how, in the process of socialization, a particular type of subject is constructed; 2) Tensions inside the families due to the different conceptions of family roles, education, work, and future projects, that family members, who belong to different generations and have experimented re-enculturation in diverse ways, maintain; 3) The challenges that the families, some of whose members are of Mayan origin, face as to the transmission of cultural knowledge to the younger generation, born in the city.

We argue that the third aspect requires special attention in social research about families of a different cultural origin in contexts of urban marginality, due to the critical tendency towards the loss of some cultural elements, such as the Mayan language in the case studied, whose transmission is being interrupted as part of the process of re-enculturation that takes place in the urban space.

 

Author:  Ksenia Sidorova & Astrid Karina Rivero Pérez

E-mail: sidorova@correo.uady.mx

Institution: Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán

Country: Rusia & México

 

 

Title: Marital Satisfaction among Taiwanese Young Couples: Effects of Normative Regulations

 Abstract: While conjugal relation remains a classical subject among family researchers, most studies face two serious challenges in the process.  First is the data problem.  Cross-sectional survey from one individual (either husband or wife) has constituted major reports. Second is to utilize the resources framework to examine significant mechanisms accounting for the marital relations.  It should be noted that resources may include both tangible (i.e., human capitals) as well as non-tangible (e.g., attitudes or values) variables which do reflect well the current family dynamics in the West. But to apply the above framework in a non-Western context, traditional norms as the pervasive important linkage appear to be missing.  This study thus intends to address the above problems and offer a cross-cultural perspective in studying marital relations in a non-Western society such as Taiwan.

        Data are taken from the Taiwan Youth Project, a longitudinal panel since the year 2000 with an average age of 14 for adolescent samples at that time.  After 14 years or 11 waves, nearly 20% samples reported being married.  Spousal surveys were followed for these young couples and 500 dyadic data were successfully completed.  From this valuable conjugal datasets, we are able to compare effects of dyadic disparity in explaining marital satisfaction at the early family formation stage. Furthermore, in addition to individual resources, conjugal and familial level factors pertaining to normative expectations are incorporated in order to ascertain their relative influence.  Results from the Actor-Partner –Interdependence Model show that conjugal as well as familial level factors contribute significantly to married sample’s marital satisfaction. In specific, traditional norms such as mating gradient, attitudes toward divorce, intergenerational exchanges and in-law relations produce salient effects on one’s marital satisfaction.  Gender variation such as co-residence with paternal parents is particularly focused in order to delineate expected constraints from the dominant patriarchal culture.  Findings suggest future studies need to consider the interplay of norm and resources in studying conjugal relations in a changing society as Taiwan.

Key words: marital satisfaction, conjugal disparity, normative effects, cultural expectation

Author: Chin-Chun Yi* & Wen-Hsu Lin**

E-mail: chinyi@gate.sinica.edu.tw

Institution:  *Institute of Sociology, Academia Sinica & **Institute of Health and Welfare Policy, National Yang-Ming University

Country: Taiwan

 

 

Title: Reproduction of inequalities among persons with diabetes in México.

Abstract: A process of health-illness relation must be understood as hierarchical interdependence of three categories: “production” (general process), “social reproduction” (particular process), and “disease” (individual) (Breihl, 1986). This approach to understand “disease” that includes these three elements stands on the opposite side to the medical point of view. According to the WHO (2017), “diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces”. The WHO’s approach has impacts on public national health policies in terms of changing bad habits and improve healthy “life style” such as healthy eating, exercises, nutritional principals and recommendations in diabetes and so on. Nevertheless, our objective is not to reproduce medical definition of diabetes which should accounts for much broader understanding. The diabetes is social process of production and reproduction within the system of reproductive inequalities.

As far as inequalities are concerned, we must talk about a “system of reproduction of inequalities” (Bihr, 2014). This system is reproduced from generation to generation and refers to different access for social classes in terms of health services, education and labour.

A study of 110 persons with diabetes and other chronic illnesses in two Mexican states considered to be on the opposite edge of inequalities and poverty: Chiapas and Nuevo León, examined the impacts of diabetes on inequalities, practices of violence among Mexican population, analyzing gender relations as well as strategies of persisting in the context of having diabetes.

Using mixed methods, results show that gender violence has impacts in both Mexican states despite of socio-economical differences. Overall, the diabetes is a complex social process that need to be analyzed on different social and socio-economical levels.

Authors: Lukasz Czarnecki & Delfino Vargas

E-mail: lukasz@comunidad.unam.mx y dvchanes@gmail.com

Institution: PUED UNAM

Country: Mexico

 

 

Title: Justice for Janitors Kids! Parent Worker Engagement in their Children’s K-12 Education: A Union and Workplace Education Model

Abstract: One-size-fits-all” parent involvement policies often do not meet the needs of low-age working parents, especially those who work the nightshift or need to take on two jobs to make ends meet. Low-wage parents face unique circumstances that often do not allow them to be involved in the traditional ways that schools and teachers promote. This paper explores a Los Angeles case study focused on a collaboration with janitor parent workers, their union (SEIU-USWW) and their employers and its contributions toward the current public school debate that seeks parent engagement alternatives for K- 12 learner success. While low-wage parents face a host of challenges, this parent worker model, Justice for Janitor’ Kids, presents parent engagement opportunities for educators to consider grounded in parent worker assets and needs. The presentation will include viewing a newly released video on the project produced by the UCLA Labor Center and the Building Skills Partnership, an educational non- profit affiliated SEIU-USWW.

Author: Janna Shadduck-Hernandez

E-mail: jshernandez@irle.ucla.edu

Institution: UCLA

Country: United States

 

 

Title: Lengua materna: Discriminación y desigualdad en las comunidades indígenas

Abstract: La vida cotidiana de los pueblos indígenas de México comparte una historia dolorosa de colonización, que hace sentir sus efectos negativos como raíz de realidades apremiantes, pobreza y discriminación. Uno de esos efectos es que todavía existe un desprecio general y un desconocimiento vergonzoso de las lenguas indígenas de nuestro país. Esta idea colonial sobre la inferioridad de las lenguas indígenas con respecto al español está presente a lo largo del siglo XX en diversos pensadores mexicanos, tales como José Vasconcelos, Manuel Gamio, Rafael Ramírez, Moisés Sáenz; que fueron atrapados por esta visión unívoca del pensamiento occidental y que los llevó a implementar una política para castellanizar a las poblaciones indígenas, pensando que era la única manera de “civilizar” a los “indios bárbaros” y sacarlos de su atraso cultural. Los costos de estas políticas han sido brutales para nuestros pueblos indígenas. Pese a lo que se dice en la Encuesta Nacional sobre Discriminación en México.

Author: Maribel Vargas Espinosa

E-mail: mayahuel2008@yahoo.com.mx

Institution: Universidad Pedagógica Nacional

Country: México

 

 

 

Title: Reflexiones acerca del impacto de la familia en el proceso de readaptación a la vida laboral y comunitaria de personas en proceso de desmovilización de grupos armados.

Abstract: Se trata de un trabajo investigativo realizado bajo la perspectiva sistémica, que tiene como objetivo general, “Comprender la dinámica familiar de 20 personas desmovilizadas y su relación en el proceso de readaptación a la vida laboral y comunitaria”. Esta propuesta de investigación se da dentro del marco de la Convocatoria interna de Proyectos de Investigación UPB-INNOVA 2016, que es una estrategia que tiene la Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, para fomentar el desarrollo de investigaciones con miras a la transferencia de conocimientos y la proyección social de la misma. La metodología que se usa en la presente investigación se planteó desde la perspectiva Cualitativa, adicionalmente, tiene en cuenta especialmente las propias narrativas de los participantes.

En este sentido se utilizó como técnica de recolección de datos la Entrevista Semiestructurada, así como el Instrumento FACES III, que mide la adaptabilidad y la cohesión familiar. En esta investigación, se abordan dos categorías: Dinámicas familiares (considera las subcategorías: Comunicación, Expresión del afecto, Rol y autoridad); así mismo se indaga la categoría Readapatación (que considera las subcategorías Readaptación a la vida laboral y Readaptación a la vida comunitaria).

Author: Luz Stella Vélez Mejía

E-mail: luzestela.velez@upb.edu.co

Institution: Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana

Country: Colombia

 

 

 

Title: Representaciones socioculturales de la paternidad en México

Abstract: En México las personas se desarrollan principalmente dentro de algún tipo de organización familiar, desde la cual se construye el Estado, cada integrante desempeña roles de género específicos y contribuye en su quehacer cotidiano al funcionamiento del Estado, como parte de un todo sistémico y que se construye social y culturalmente. La política social, se enfoca reiteradamente por lo menos en el discurso al “bienestar de la familia”. En el modelo tradicional de familia se observan estereotipos donde el hombre es el proveedor de recursos y prevalece su autoridad, mientras que las mujeres son las administradoras del hogar. Este modelo ha evolucionado y a su vez, ha generado una diversidad en el tipo de organización al interior de los hogares mexicanos: cambio en los roles tradicionales de hombres y mujeres, hogares con jefatura femenina, padres de familia solos, hogares homoparentales, padres y madres adolescentes, entre otros.

 De esta manera, es posible identificar al jefe o jefa del hogar, ya que los integrantes del mismo lo reconocen como la persona de mayor autoridad, como un guía o proveedor. La autoridad paterna es también una construcción social que tiene como finalidad el bienestar del grupo familiar. Frente al Estado, la familia que es la principal fuente de producción y de autoconsumo básico de los servicios y los bienes adquiridos para la reproducción social, la política social contribuye a la organización económica de los recursos destinados al bienestar social. Los servicios son socialmente necesarios para satisfacer las necesidades básicas, en esta reproducción es responsable de las acciones consensadas entre la sociedad y el Estado. El consumo es el conjunto de procesos socioculturales en que se realiza la apropiación y el uso de los productos en una sociedad y este abre las oportunidades a que las personas salgan de la pobreza.

Con mi proyecto deseo trabajar una propuesta de investigación-acción-participativa, con un enfoque de Trabajo Social de casos, para estudiar y analizar trayectorias de vida de padres adolescentes, que muestren prácticas y representaciones sociales respecto a su paternidad. Me interesa centrarme en la forma en que se involucran los varones jóvenes en el proceso de embarazo y la construcción social de la paternidad.

Con los estudios de caso quiero reconstruir historias de vida que me permitan observar la condición de vida de los padres adolescentes en la Ciudad de México. Asimismo, observar el campo social más cercano como la escuela, grupos familiar y de amistades, y comunidad en distintos contextos, considero importante contrastar casos de lo rural y lo urbano, asimismo de distintos estratos socioeconómicos.

Author: Ana Alicia Torres Torres

E-mail: alicia.torres@entsadistancia.unam.mx

Institution: Escuela Nacional de Trabajo Social

Country: México

 

 

 

Title: Acompañamiento familiar:  Estrategia de desarrollo familiar para contrarrestar la desigualdad 

Abstract: La propuesta de ponencia surge de uno de los resultados de la investigación con enfoque cualitativo, titulada El lugar de los métodos en la investigación – intervención en la profesión de desarrollo familiar, realizada en las líneas de investigación Familia, desarrollo y cambio (Universidad de Caldas) y Familia y calidad de vida (Universidad Luis Amigó). Toma en cuenta los discursos de profesionales de desarrollo familiar con experiencia de trabajo con familia, quienes defienden y practican el acompañamiento familiar en los procesos con familia. El objetivo es interpretar el acompañamiento familiar que realizan estos profesionales y el lugar de la familia en el mismo, con el fin de dejar puntos de vista que se espera servirán como referente de futuros trabajos institucionales orientados a propiciar la disminución de las desigualdades en las familias con su propia participación. El desarrollo familiar colombiano surgió en los años 80 en una comunidad de pensamiento y acción preocupada por contrarrestar el “abandono de la familia en el desarrollo” y por de-construir modelos y estilos de desarrollo y de vida familiar que han promovido la persistencia de las pobrezas y las desigualdades. Sustentado en esta idea y en los supuestos de familia, desarrollo y cambio, entre los cuales se enfatizan la parcial determinación y la agencia, se posicionó una manera profesional del trabajo con familia orientada por la politización de la vida familiar y el cambio positivo desde y con ella. Entendiendo el acompañamiento familiar como la estrategia de proximidad profesional y de la praxis del cambio familiar mediante la cual se promueve el desarrollo familiar, en los resultados se dará cuenta de tres ejes de análisis: - Familia en desarrollo familiar: el objeto y la finalidad del acompañamiento familiar. - Acompañamiento familiar: estrategia de proximidad en desarrollo familiar. - Acompañamiento y praxis del desarrollo familiar colombiano.

Author: Luz María López Montaño

E-mail: mar.cris129@gmail.com

Institution: Universidad de Caldas

Country: Colombia

 

 

Title: La desigualdad de ingresos en América Latina: una evaluación del pasado reciente.

Abstract: A partir del año 2000, diversas economias latinoamericanas establecieron rutas de crecimiento economico, soportadas en su mayoria, por un aumento de la demanda de bienes primarios por parte de China, dicho crecimiento del Producto Interno Bruto, se acompaño en algunos casos con disminución de la desigualdad de los ingresos, medida a través del coeficiente de gini, sin embargo, la desigualdad de los hogares continua siendo una asignatura pendiente, por lo tanto es importante establecer el comportamiento de algunas otras variables, como lo son, el empleo formal y el incremento de los salarios que pudieran acompañar las politicas publicas de combate a la pobreza y desigualdad. Sin embargo, en la revisión estadistica, se hace enfásis sobre el rezago en el tema de la desigualdad de ingresos que persiste en la región.

Authors: José Nabor Cruz Marcelo

E-mail: jnabor@unam.mx

Institution: IIEc UNAM

Country: Mexico

 

 

 

Title: Diversidad familiar en contextos populares: miradas desde la perspectiva de género y el desarrollo sustentable.

Abstract: Durante las últimas 4 décadas la sociedad mexicana ha experimentado procesos de modernización que han dado una mayor diversidad de formas familiares (ampliadas, reconstituidas, no heterosexuales, entre otras). Esta complejidad de formas familiares permite ver algunos cambios que lideran las mujeres debido a su ingreso al mercado de trabajo, un mayor control de su fecundidad y más libertad sexual, lo que a su vez se relaciona con la flexibilización de los roles de género.

La diversidad es un valor central del desarrollo sustentable, se encuentra intrínsecamente relacionada con la equidad de género, la biodiversidad y la diversidad cultural. Este trabajo tiene un enfoque de desarrollo sustentable en el sentido de que la diversidad familiar tiene relevancia como expresión cultural, además, la dimensión ambiental como dimensión de estudio en los hogares y las familias está considerada como una esfera de importancia para valorar cómo se ha transformado la vida de las personas que se encuentran en contextos urbanos familiares de la Ciudad de México.

Las interrelaciones entre la perspectiva de género y la sustentabilidad son inherentes, si no hay equidad de género tampoco se puede decir que eso es sustentable, no hay desarrollo sustentable sin igualdad o equidad de género. Esto nos lleva a estudiar si los cambios de las parejas y las familias urbanas mexicanas están configurando políticas públicas diferenciadas, incluyentes y equitativas desde el punto de vista social y económico o si los problemas ambientales condicionan formas de pobreza que son de conflicto familiar, también permite indagar en qué esferas de la vida íntima se encuentran los elementos más tradicionales y si estos se encuentran en correspondencia con las transformaciones y demandas de la sociedad económica internacional.

 

Authors: Edgar Iván Zazueta Luzanilla

E-mail:  eizazuetal@institutomora.edu.mx

Institution: Instituto Mora

Country: Mexico

 

 

Title: “Familia, trabajo social y ‘el médico en tu casa’”

Abstract: El Médico en tu Casa es un programa del gobierno de la Ciudad de México, que fue creado en el año 2014, operado por la secretaria de salud. Tiene como principal objetivo, brindar atención en salud a domicilio a personas que por alguna condición física, psicológica y/o social, presente dificultades para trasladarse al centro de salud, que no cuente con ningún tipo de seguridad social y clasificada en alguno de los siguientes grupos vulnerables: personas mayores con limitación funcional física, personas con discapacidad, personas postradas, personas en situación de abandono, enfermos terminales y mujeres con embarazo de alto riesgo o sin control prenatal.

Esta atención se encuentra integrada por médicos, enfermeras, promotores de la salud, psicólogas, nutriólogas, odontólogas, fisioterapeutas y trabajadoras sociales, quienes asisten a los domicilios de las personas en condiciones de vulnerabilidad para proporcionar apoyo a pacientes, cuidadores y familiares, en diferentes aspectos de la salud.

La importancia de Trabajo social deviene de sus características que lo constituyen para poder ocuparse de las situaciones sociales, pues es una disciplina de las ciencias sociales que contribuye al programa “El Médico en tu Casa”, a través de una metodología científica, estudiando e interviniendo en las necesidades y problemas sociales del paciente, cuidadores y la familia. Esta intervención muchas veces se encuentra limitada institucionalmente por diversos factores, terminando por ser el trabajador social únicamente un gestor de seguro popular y gratuidad (programa de afiliación para la obtención de servicios médicos y medicamentos gratuitos) y orientador de otros programas para personas mayores o personas con discapacidad, que el mismo gobierna de la Ciudad de México opera.

 

Authors: Omar García

E-mail:  omargarcia.ts@gmail.com

Institution: ENTS UNAM

Country: Mexico

 

 

 

Title: Nuevos tipos de familias, retos y oportunidades para el futuro

Las sociedades están constituidas por grupos humanos que en su núcleo cercano se reconocen como familias; En el siglo XXI, la globalización y la apertura es el signo de los tiempos, es por ello que la transformación de las relaciones sociales no puede estar ajenas a este fenómeno.

En un estudio reciente el Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales de la UNAM, identifica en esta movilidad, once tipos de familias diferentes, en los que destaca la tendencia creciente a disminuir el número de sus integrantes y a reflejar una óptica nueva sobre quienes conforman ese importante circulo y que funciones deberán de cubrir para dar cuidados y estabilidad física y emocional a sus miembros. ¿Quién atenderá los requerimientos de una sociedad con mayores expectativas de vida, pero sin redes de apoyo familiares para atender sus necesidades de cuidados cuando lleguen a la etapa de vejez?, ¿Cuál es la oferta institucional y las tendencias de las políticas públicas para este cambio demográfico, social y cultural?, ¿Estamos preparados para afrontar con éxito estos retos?

En este breve ensayo intentaremos describir algunos de esos retos y algunas líneas de intervención para explorar éste futuro, que ya es presente.

Authors: Cecilia Zaragoza

E-mail:  czaragoza67@gmail.com

Institution: ENTS UNAM

Country: Mexico

 

 

 

Title: Gestación Subrogada y Diversidad

Abstract: Una encuesta etnográfica multisituada, realizada en México de 2015 a 2017 en el periodo que marcó la transición de la no-regulación hacia la restricción prohibitiva de la gestación subrogada, ofrece la oportunidad de analizar la correlación entre proyecto parental, sexualidad y género a través de los discursos, las prácticas y las representaciones de familias hetero, homo y monoparentales que recurren a la subrogación gestacional y a otras técnicas de procreación médicamente asistida.

¿En qué sentido padres y madres de intención reaccionan frente a la posibilidad de que donantes de gametos o de capacidad gestante participen en la procreación de su hijo?, ¿cómo se relaciona la búsqueda de un hijo, vía la medicalización, con el tipo de alianza o de familia?, ¿a qué obstáculos se enfrentan los padres de intención hetero, homo y monoparentales que optan por la subrogación gestacional? O ¿acaso la búsqueda de un hijo constituye actualmente “el dispositivo más efectivo de normalización “?

El análisis muestra que las variables de orientación sexual, género, edad y clase social son definitorias; al tiempo que sale a relucir en la diversidad de proyectos familiares el estrecho lazo entre sexualidad, género y deseo por el ‘hijo propio’.

 Diversidad y desigualdad de la gestación para otros en México.

Author: María Eugenia Olavarría Patiño

E-mail: ome@xanum.uam.mx

Institution: Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana

Country: México

 




Inequalities and families: an interdisciplinary perspective

Committee on Family Research, RC06, ISA

Mexico City

29, 30 November and 1 December 2017

Latin America remains the most unequal region in the world. According to the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), by 2014, the richest 10% of the population in Latin America had concentrated 71% of the wealth of the region. Women and children, young and older, ethnic communities suffer the most unequal distribution of wealth in the region. Inequalities are always in plural, as there are inequalities in access to education, inequalities in access to health services, gender inequalities, intergenerational inequalities, work inequalities based on different conditions and access to labour, inequalities of living standards, inequalities on access to cultural activities, inequalities based on colour of skin, among others.

Inequalities create disadvantaged that accumulate from generation to generation, from past to the present. They reproduce and remain despite government and non-government actions and policies. Are we doomed for living in inequalities in Latin America and the Caribbean? That is the question which brings researchers on family issues to Mexico City to rethink and take actions on inequalities. Particularly, the Committee on Family Research must confront these issues and create analytical framework of understanding global issues. Rethinking inequalities in Latin America and the Caribbean will contribute to achieve understandings of inequalities in Asia, Africa, North America and Europe, and vice versa. We share the same global problems: social exclusions, unsustainable development, climate change, the ambivalent role of technology in our lives, and negative effects of economic system. Alicia Bárcena, Executive Secretary of ECLAC clearly stressed: “equality is the goal”. Let our meeting in Mexico City create the path of structural change in theory and practice on inequalities and families.

On September 19, 2017 Mexico City and population living here have been affected by strong earthquake. Nevertheless, we decided to proceed in organizing our event. We will have the four great keynote lectures delivered by Patrizia Albanese, Miguel del Castillo, Göran Therborn and Gina Zabludovsky. Thank you all of you for coming to our city and thank you for your contribute in our Conference. 

Chair Lukasz Czarnecki  

ISA RC06 Local Organizing Committee

UNAM Mexico City